A Cartesian Product is the product of two non-empty sets in terms of ordered pairs. As an example, if we take the set of values, A, B and C, and a second set of values, 1, 2, and 3, the Cartesian Product of these two sets would be the set of ordered pairs, A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3.

The ECL code to produce this kind of result from any two input datasets would look like this (contained in Cartesian.ECL):

OutFile1 := '~PROGGUIDE::OUT::CP1'; rec := RECORD STRING1 Letter; END; Inds1 := DATASET([{'A'},{'B'},{'C'},{'D'},{'E'}, {'F'},{'G'},{'H'},{'I'},{'J'}, {'K'},{'L'},{'M'},{'N'},{'O'}, {'P'},{'Q'},{'R'},{'S'},{'T'}, {'U'},{'V'},{'W'},{'X'},{'Y'}], rec); Inds2 := DATASET([{'A'},{'B'},{'C'},{'D'},{'E'}, {'F'},{'G'},{'H'},{'I'},{'J'}, {'K'},{'L'},{'M'},{'N'},{'O'}, {'P'},{'Q'},{'R'},{'S'},{'T'}, {'U'},{'V'},{'W'},{'X'},{'Y'}], rec); CntInDS2 := COUNT(Inds2); SetInDS2 := SET(inds2,letter); outrec := RECORD STRING1 LeftLetter; STRING1 RightLetter; END; outrec CartProd(rec L, INTEGER C) := TRANSFORM SELF.LeftLetter := L.Letter; SELF.RightLetter := SetInDS2[C]; END; //Run the small datasets CP1 := NORMALIZE(Inds1,CntInDS2,CartProd(LEFT,COUNTER)); OUTPUT(CP1,,OutFile1,OVERWRITE);

The core structure of this code is the NORMALIZE that will produce the Cartesian Product. The two input datasets each have twenty-five records, so the number of result records will be six hundred twenty-five (twenty-five squared).

Each record in the LEFT input dataset to the NORMALIZE will execute the TRANSFORM once for each entry in the SET of values. Making the values a SET is the key to allowing NORMALIZE to perform this operation, otherwise you would need to do a JOIN where the join condition is the keyword TRUE to accomplish this task. However, in testing this with sizable datasets (as in the next instance of this code below), the NORMALIZE version was about 25% faster than using JOIN. If there is more than one field, then multiple SETs may be defined and the process stays the same.

This next example does the same operation as above, but first generates two sizeable datasets to work with (also contained in Cartesian.ECL):

InFile1 := '~PROGGUIDE::IN::CP1'; InFile2 := '~PROGGUIDE::IN::CP2'; OutFile2 := '~PROGGUIDE::OUT::CP2'; //generate data files rec BuildFile(rec L, INTEGER C) := TRANSFORM SELF.Letter := Inds2[C].Letter; END; GenCP1 := NORMALIZE(InDS1,CntInDS2,BuildFile(LEFT,COUNTER)); GenCP2 := NORMALIZE(GenCP1,CntInDS2,BuildFile(LEFT,COUNTER)); GenCP3 := NORMALIZE(GenCP2,CntInDS2,BuildFile(LEFT,COUNTER)); Out1 := OUTPUT(DISTRIBUTE(GenCP3,RANDOM()),,InFile1,OVERWRITE); Out2 := OUTPUT(DISTRIBUTE(GenCP2,RANDOM()),,InFile2,OVERWRITE); // Use the generated datasets in a cartesian join: ds1 := DATASET(InFile1,rec,thor); ds2 := DATASET(InFile2,rec,thor); CntDS2 := COUNT(ds2); SetDS2 := SET(ds2,letter); CP2 := NORMALIZE(ds1,CntDS2,CartProd(LEFT,COUNTER)); Out3 := OUTPUT(CP2,,OutFile2,OVERWRITE); SEQUENTIAL(Out1,Out2,Out3)

Using NORMALIZE in this case to generate the datasets is the same type of usage previously described in the Creating Example Data article. After that, the process to achieve the Cartesian Product is exactly the same as the previous example.

Here's an example of how this same operation can be done using JOIN (also contained in Cartesian.ECL):

// outrec joinEm(rec L, rec R) := TRANSFORM // SELF.LeftLetter := L.Letter; // SELF.RightLetter := R.Letter; // END; // ds4 := JOIN(ds1, ds2, TRUE, joinEM(LEFT, RIGHT), ALL); // OUTPUT(ds4);